Note Taking During a PhD 在博士期间做笔记

Note Taking During a PhD
在博士期间做笔记

By Tara Brabazon 塔拉·布拉巴赞著
Office of Graduate Research 研究生院
Flinders University 弗林德斯大学
Adelaide, South Australia 南澳大利亚阿德莱德

Tara talks about one of the most basic – yet one of the most powerful – academic skills: note taking. How can PhD students future proof their notes to build a research career?
塔拉谈到一个非常基本,却很重要的学术技能——记笔记。博士生如何记好含金量高的笔记来保证以后有自己的“金饭碗”?

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Interpreting Speech #18 – Blue Bays Program (Mandarin-into-English)

Briefing

You have been called to interpret at a conference on environmental protection in Tianjin. Your client is a government representative who is introducing the Blue Bays Program which aims to improve the quality of marine environments in China.

Listen to Speech

Interpreting Speech #18 – Blue Bays Program (Mandarin-into-English)

Transcript and reference translation

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20 Quick Tips to Increase the Speed of your PhD 助你更快完成PhD的二十条忠告

20 Quick Tips to Increase the Speed of your PhD
助你更快完成PhD的二十条忠告

By Tara Brabazon 塔拉·布拉巴赞著
Office of Graduate Research 研究生院
Flinders University 弗林德斯大学
Adelaide, South Australia 南澳大利亚阿德莱德

Finishing a PhD is all that matters. An unfinished PhD remains a wound in a life. It can heal. But there is a scar. So how can you finish a PhD at speed, even in difficult times?
持之以恒地完成博士学位的学习是非常重要的。半途而废无疑是人生的缺憾,虽不会造成无法挽回的后果,但也会留下陈年的悔恨。另一方面,我们是否有办法缩短博士毕业所需的时间呢?答案是有的,而且即使在面临生活中种种困难的情况下,以下20条建议也能帮助你更快地完成博士学位的学习。

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Interpreting Speech #17 – Policing the Dark Web (English-into-Mandarin)

Briefing

During your work as a freelance interpreter in the United States, you have accepted an assignment to interpret for a delegation from China who are visiting a law enforcement agency. During this particular speech, the speaker will explain to the Chinese delegation the legal issues associated with the dark web.

Listen to Speech

Interpreting Speech #17 – Policing the Dark Web (English-into-Mandarin)

Transcript and reference translation

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Interpreting Speech #16 – Public Legal Services in China (Mandarin-into-English)

Briefing

You have accepted an assignment to interpret at a conference in Chengdu, China. One of the speakers is giving a keynote address on the topic “Public Legal Services in China”.

Listen to Speech

Interpreting Speech #16 – Public Legal Services in China (Mandarin-into-English)

Transcript and reference translation

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24 Most Common Errors Committed by Chinese Students Who Major in Translation 翻译专业学生在汉译英中最常见的24个错误

24 Most Common Errors Committed by Chinese Students Who Major in Translation 翻译专业学生在汉译英中最常见的24个错误

by Carl Gene Fordham 傅君恺著

Note: This is just a rough guide that teachers and students of Chinese translation might find useful. There are of course more mistakes than this, but I am confident that this makes up the majority of errors that Chinese translators make.
注:此文仅供翻译专业的老师和学生参考,希望对大家有所帮助。当然除了这些错误之外还会有其他很多错误,在此我仅列举出翻译专业学生们最容易犯的24个错误。

Orthography 书写规范

1. Formatting Error 格式错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly use spaces, indentation, paragraphing, capitalization, italics, etc. 意思:译者误用空格、缩进、分段、大写、斜体等。

2. Punctuation Error 标点符号错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly use full stops, commas, colons, quotation marks, etc. 意思:译者误用句号、逗号、冒号、引号等。

3. Misspelling 拼写错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly spell certain words. 意思:译者拼错单词。

Expression 表达

4. Ambiguity 歧义

Meaning: The translator created ambiguity in the target text that was not present in the source text. 意思:译者在译文中“望文生义”,进而造成歧义,但是原文却没有歧义。

5. Unidiomatic Expression 表达不地道

Meaning: The translator used language that does not sound natural. 意思:译者使用的语言听起来不自然。

6. First-Language Interference 母语干扰

Meaning: The translator has been influenced by his or her native language, and this is clearly manifested in the expression of the target text. For example, translators from China may produce Chinglish, or translators from English-speaking countries may produce Anglicized Chinese. 意思:译者受到母语干扰,而明显表现于译文中。例如,中国译者可能会使用中式英语,或来自英语国家的译者可能会使用英式中文。

7. Prosody Issue 音律问题

Meaning: The translator produced language that does not conform to natural requirements of rhythm, intonation and stress. (Note: This problem is more common in poetry translation than any other field.) 意思:译者选的措辞不符合节奏、声调和重音的自然要求。(注:这一问题容易出现在诗歌翻译,其他领域发生地比较少。)

8. Overly Literal Translation 过于直译

Meaning: The translator translated every word in the source text literally, which results in an unnatural translation. This is also known as “sign translation” because the translator translates the signs in the source text rather than the meaning behind the signs. 意思:译者将原文中每个字进行直译,导致译文不自然。这一现象也称为“符号翻译”,因为译者翻译的是原文的“符号”,而不是“符号”背后的含义。

Convention 惯例

9. Repetition 重复

Meaning: The translator repeated words in the target text in a way that sounds unnatural. (Note: Different languages have different requirements when it comes to repetition. For example, Chinese can tolerate high levels of repetition, while English cannot.) 意思:译者在译文中重复单词,导致译文读起来不自然。(注:不同语言对重复有不同的要求。例如,中文能包容频繁重复,而英文不能。)

10. Redundancy 累赘

Meaning: The translator used words in the target text that do not communicate little actual meaning. (Note: Redundancy can be acceptable depending on the language and text type.) 意思:译者在译文中使用的词,表达的实意不多。(注:累赘现象是否可以被接受,取决于语言和文本类型。)

11. Violation of Political Correctness 违反政治正确

Meaning: The translator used expressions that are not considered politically correct in the region in which the language is spoken. 意思:译者使用的表达方式在语言使用区被认为是政治不正确。

12. Violation of Cultural Assumption 违反文化预设

Meaning: The translator used expressions that do not conform with what native speakers of the language consider common sense. For example, the concepts of Western logic are not the same as their equivalents in Chinese culture. 意思:译者使用的表达方式不符合母语人士所理解的常识。例如,西方逻辑与中文逻辑不同。

13. Syntax Problem 句法问题

Meaning: The translator did not put words and phrases together in a natural order. 意思:译者没有将单词和短语按自然的次序整合起来,而是堆砌词语。

14. Collocation Error 搭配错误

Meaning: The translator put two or more words together in an expression that native speakers do not usually use. 意思:译者使用英语为母语人士少用的词组搭配。

15. Grammatical Error 语法错误

Meaning: The translator made a mistake in grammar. 意思:译者在语法上犯错误。

Text, Readers and Client 文本、读者和客户

16. Violation of Text-Type Norm 违反文本类型规范

Meaning: The translator used expressions that in a text of a similar type in the target language would be considered abnormal. 意思:译者使用的表达方式,在目标语类似的文本中被认为是不正常的。

17. Register Problem 语域问题

Meaning: The translator used formal language when informal language should have been used, or vice versa, or otherwise used colloquial or slang expressions inappropriately. 意思:译者使用正式语言,而应该使用的是非正式语言,或反之亦然;或滥用口语或俚语表达方式。

18. Violation of Readership Expectation 违反读者要求

Meaning: The translator used expressions that a reader in the target language would not be expecting in a text of that type. 意思:译者使用的表达方式,是目标语读者不期望在类似的文本中看到的。

19. Localization Issue 本土化问题

Meaning: The translator used expressions or spellings that do not conform with the variety of the target language. For example, British English was used for an American readership, or Simplified Chinese was used for a Taiwan readership. 意思:译者使用的表达方式或拼写不合乎目标语种类。例如,译者给美国读者使用英式英语,或译者给台湾读者使用简体字。

Message 信息

20. Violation of Authorial Intent 违反作者意图

Meaning: The translator used expressions that do not meet the communicative objectives of the author. 意思:译者使用的表达方式达不到作者的沟通目标。

21. Distortion 曲解

Meaning: The translator changed the meaning of the source text without justification. This is commonly referred to as “mistranslation”. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下改变原文的意思。这一现象经常被称为“误译”。

22. Addition 添加

Meaning: The translator added content to the target text that was not in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下将不在原文中的内容添加在译文上。

23. Omission 删减

Meaning: The translator left out content in the target text that was in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下擅自将原文的内容有意删减或不译。

24. Change of Focus 焦点转变

Meaning: The translator changed the focus (usually of a sentence) in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下改变原文(通常是句子)的焦点。

English Translations of the 13 Chinese Classics 十三经英译大全

For anyone interested, the blog run by the Journal of Chinese Humanities at Shandong University has published a catalogue I collated of all the complete translations into English of the 13 Chinese classics (十三經).

You can check it out here:

English Translations of The 13 Chinese Classics: A Catalogue By Carl Gene Fordham

It was originally posted on the WeChat account one of my classmates at BeiDa runs. You can read the original article here:

十三经英译大全 | 汉籍经典英译系列

Lecture #3: 15 Common Mistakes in Chinese-English Translation and How To Avoid Them

Lecture #3: 15 Common Mistakes in Chinese-English Translation and How To Avoid Them

第三讲座:汉英翻译十五大常见错误及其对策

Carl Gene Fordham
傅君恺

Beijing International Studies University
北京第二外国语学院
11 April 2018
2018年4月11日

If we accept that it is harder to translate into one’s foreign language than vice versa, then Chinese-into-English translation should be a key focus of translation schools in China, especially considering the significant differences between the two languages. In this lecture I examine the most common errors made by Chinese students in Chinese-into-English translation by providing examples from students’ own work last semester. I will also explain the most useful strategies to prevent and correct these mistakes. It is hoped that this systematic analysis will help students of translating and interpreting, as well as English majors, understand the common challenges they face in becoming competent bilinguals.
如果我们赞同将母语译为外来语比将外来语译为母语更为困难,那么汉英翻译应该是中国各个翻译学院的重点议题,特别是考虑到汉语和英语之间存在的巨大差异。本次讲座我会将上学期同学们的翻译实践作为案例,分析中国学生在汉译英中的常见错误,以及给出相应的实用策略以避免该类错误的再次发生。我希望这一系统的分析能帮助笔译、口译及英语专业学生了解他们在成为优秀双语者的道路上会面临的常见挑战。

Watch the lecture on YouTube:

Part One
Part Two

Watch the lecture on Bilibili:

Part One
Part Two

What I Talked About in This Lecture

In this lecture, I talked about the 15 most common mistakes made by translation students. It is a summary of the translation course I taught last semester at Beijing International Studies University. This lecture may be helpful for both students and teachers of Chinese-English translation, especially those who find textbooks on the subject lacking and impractical.

Please note that this is not supposed to be an exhuastive list – of course, there are many more challenges that students face when learning how to translate. However, I am confident that this presentation provides a good overview of the key ones, and I have tried to put them in order of frequency, so the top five or so are particularly important.

At the begining of the lecture, I provide a warning to interpreting students: that the mistakes I talk about are very different to those encountered by interpreting students, which I hope to cover in a future lecture. The way I see it, the differing needs of translation and interpreting students can be differentiated thus:

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Interpreting Speech #14 – Combatting Cyber Crime (Mandarin-into-English)

Briefing

You have been engaged to interpret at an information technology conference in Shenzhen, China. A Chinese-speaking presenter has just begun a talk entitled, “New Challenges in Combatting Cyber Crime”.

Listen to Speech

Interpreting Speech #14 – Combatting Cyber Crime (Mandarin-into-English)

Transcript and reference translation

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