24 Most Common Errors Committed by Chinese Students Who Major in Translation 翻译专业学生在汉译英中最常见的24个错误

24 Most Common Errors Committed by Chinese Students Who Major in Translation 翻译专业学生在汉译英中最常见的24个错误

by Carl Gene Fordham 傅君恺著

Note: This is just a rough guide that teachers and students of Chinese translation might find useful. There are of course more mistakes than this, but I am confident that this makes up the majority of errors that Chinese translators make.
注:此文仅供翻译专业的老师和学生参考,希望对大家有所帮助。当然除了这些错误之外还会有其他很多错误,在此我仅列举出翻译专业学生们最容易犯的24个错误。

Orthography 书写规范

1. Formatting Error 格式错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly use spaces, indentation, paragraphing, capitalization, italics, etc. 意思:译者误用空格、缩进、分段、大写、斜体等。

2. Punctuation Error 标点符号错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly use full stops, commas, colons, quotation marks, etc. 意思:译者误用句号、逗号、冒号、引号等。

3. Misspelling 拼写错误

Meaning: The translator did not correctly spell certain words. 意思:译者拼错单词。

Expression 表达

4. Ambiguity 歧义

Meaning: The translator created ambiguity in the target text that was not present in the source text. 意思:译者在译文中“望文生义”,进而造成歧义,但是原文却没有歧义。

5. Unidiomatic Expression 表达不地道

Meaning: The translator used language that does not sound natural. 意思:译者使用的语言听起来不自然。

6. First-Language Interference 母语干扰

Meaning: The translator has been influenced by his or her native language, and this is clearly manifested in the expression of the target text. For example, translators from China may produce Chinglish, or translators from English-speaking countries may produce Anglicized Chinese. 意思:译者受到母语干扰,而明显表现于译文中。例如,中国译者可能会使用中式英语,或来自英语国家的译者可能会使用英式中文。

7. Prosody Issue 音律问题

Meaning: The translator produced language that does not conform to natural requirements of rhythm, intonation and stress. (Note: This problem is more common in poetry translation than any other field.) 意思:译者选的措辞不符合节奏、声调和重音的自然要求。(注:这一问题容易出现在诗歌翻译,其他领域发生地比较少。)

8. Overly Literal Translation 过于直译

Meaning: The translator translated every word in the source text literally, which results in an unnatural translation. This is also known as “sign translation” because the translator translates the signs in the source text rather than the meaning behind the signs. 意思:译者将原文中每个字进行直译,导致译文不自然。这一现象也称为“符号翻译”,因为译者翻译的是原文的“符号”,而不是“符号”背后的含义。

Convention 惯例

9. Repetition 重复

Meaning: The translator repeated words in the target text in a way that sounds unnatural. (Note: Different languages have different requirements when it comes to repetition. For example, Chinese can tolerate high levels of repetition, while English cannot.) 意思:译者在译文中重复单词,导致译文读起来不自然。(注:不同语言对重复有不同的要求。例如,中文能包容频繁重复,而英文不能。)

10. Redundancy 累赘

Meaning: The translator used words in the target text that do not communicate little actual meaning. (Note: Redundancy can be acceptable depending on the language and text type.) 意思:译者在译文中使用的词,表达的实意不多。(注:累赘现象是否可以被接受,取决于语言和文本类型。)

11. Violation of Political Correctness 违反政治正确

Meaning: The translator used expressions that are not considered politically correct in the region in which the language is spoken. 意思:译者使用的表达方式在语言使用区被认为是政治不正确。

12. Violation of Cultural Assumption 违反文化预设

Meaning: The translator used expressions that do not conform with what native speakers of the language consider common sense. For example, the concepts of Western logic are not the same as their equivalents in Chinese culture. 意思:译者使用的表达方式不符合母语人士所理解的常识。例如,西方逻辑与中文逻辑不同。

13. Syntax Problem 句法问题

Meaning: The translator did not put words and phrases together in a natural order. 意思:译者没有将单词和短语按自然的次序整合起来,而是堆砌词语。

14. Collocation Error 搭配错误

Meaning: The translator put two or more words together in an expression that native speakers do not usually use. 意思:译者使用英语为母语人士少用的词组搭配。

15. Grammatical Error 语法错误

Meaning: The translator made a mistake in grammar. 意思:译者在语法上犯错误。

Text, Readers and Client 文本、读者和客户

16. Violation of Text-Type Norm 违反文本类型规范

Meaning: The translator used expressions that in a text of a similar type in the target language would be considered abnormal. 意思:译者使用的表达方式,在目标语类似的文本中被认为是不正常的。

17. Register Problem 语域问题

Meaning: The translator used formal language when informal language should have been used, or vice versa, or otherwise used colloquial or slang expressions inappropriately. 意思:译者使用正式语言,而应该使用的是非正式语言,或反之亦然;或滥用口语或俚语表达方式。

18. Violation of Readership Expectation 违反读者要求

Meaning: The translator used expressions that a reader in the target language would not be expecting in a text of that type. 意思:译者使用的表达方式,是目标语读者不期望在类似的文本中看到的。

19. Localization Issue 本土化问题

Meaning: The translator used expressions or spellings that do not conform with the variety of the target language. For example, British English was used for an American readership, or Simplified Chinese was used for a Taiwan readership. 意思:译者使用的表达方式或拼写不合乎目标语种类。例如,译者给美国读者使用英式英语,或译者给台湾读者使用简体字。

Message 信息

20. Violation of Authorial Intent 违反作者意图

Meaning: The translator used expressions that do not meet the communicative objectives of the author. 意思:译者使用的表达方式达不到作者的沟通目标。

21. Distortion 曲解

Meaning: The translator changed the meaning of the source text without justification. This is commonly referred to as “mistranslation”. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下改变原文的意思。这一现象经常被称为“误译”。

22. Addition 添加

Meaning: The translator added content to the target text that was not in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下将不在原文中的内容添加在译文上。

23. Omission 删减

Meaning: The translator left out content in the target text that was in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下擅自将原文的内容有意删减或不译。

24. Change of Focus 焦点转变

Meaning: The translator changed the focus (usually of a sentence) in the source text without justification. 意思:译者在没有依据的情况下改变原文(通常是句子)的焦点。

1 Comment to "24 Most Common Errors Committed by Chinese Students Who Major in Translation 翻译专业学生在汉译英中最常见的24个错误"

  1. David R. Schiller's Gravatar David R. Schiller
    13/07/2021 - 12:21 am | Permalink

    Couldn’t make your email address [若有事相询,请发邮箱1366974083 AT qq DOT com] work, so I am using this way of notifying you that both Volumes of my translation of Confucius: Discussions/Conversations or the Analects [Lun-yu] are now available on Amazon. Hopefully, although I am sure I made many, my errors in translation are at an acceptable limit. Let me know when you find them, so that they can be corrected. Thanks.
    Da-xue and Zhong-yong are close to completion and will be published very soon.

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